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Using HBase Through API

Last updated: 2022-11-07 16:26:04

    HBase is an open-source, high-reliability, high-performance, column-oriented, scalable distributed storage system developed based on Google BigTable. It uses Hadoop file system (HDFS) as the file storage system, Hadoop MapReduce for processing massive amounts of data in HBase, and ZooKeeper for collaboration.

    • HBase consists of ZooKeeper, HMaster, and HRegionServer. ZooKeeper prevents single points of failure on HMaster, and its master election mechanism guarantees that there is always a master node available in the cluster.
    • HMaster manages the CRUD operations on the tables and the load balancing of the HRegionServers. In addition, when an HRegionServer exits, it moves the HRegion of that HRegionServer to another.
    • HRegionServer is the core module in HBase and responsible for reading and writing data from and to HDFS based on user's I/O requests. HRegionServer internally manages a series of HRegion objects, each of which corresponds to a Region and consists of multiple Stores. Each Store corresponds to the storage in the Column Family.

    This development guide describes how to use an EMR cluster for development from a technical perspective. For data security reasons, only VPC access is currently supported for EMR.

    1. Development Preparations

    • Confirm that you have activated Tencent Cloud and created an EMR cluster. When creating the EMR cluster, select the HBase and ZooKeeper components on the software configuration page.

    2. Using HBase Shell

    Log in to a master node of the EMR cluster first before using HBase Shell. For more information on how to log in to EMR, please see Logging in to Linux Instance Using Standard Login Method. You can choose to log in with WebShell. Click "Log in" on the right of the desired CVM instance to enter the login page. The default username is root, and the password is the one you set when creating the EMR cluster. Once the correct information is entered, you can enter the EMR command line interface.

    Run the following command on the EMR command line interface to switch to the Hadoop user and go to the directory /usr/local/service/hbase:

    [root@172 ~]# su hadoop
    [hadoop@10root]$ cd /usr/local/service/hbase

    You can enter HBase Shell by running the following command:

    [hadoop@10hbase]$ bin/hbase shell

    Enter help in HBase Shell to see basic usage information and command examples. Next, create a table by running the following command:

    hbase(main):001:0> create 'test', 'cf'

    Once the table is created, you can run the list command to see whether it exists.

    hbase(main):002:0> list 'test'
    1 row(s) in 0.0030 seconds
    => ["test"]

    Run the put command to add elements to the table you created:

    hbase(main):003:0> put 'test', 'row1', 'cf:a', 'value1'
    0 row(s) in 0.0850 seconds
    hbase(main):004:0> put 'test', 'row2', 'cf:b', 'value2'
    0 row(s) in 0.0110 seconds
    hbase(main):005:0> put 'test', 'row3', 'cf:c', 'value3'
    0 row(s) in 0.0100 seconds

    Three values are added to the created table. The first is "value1" inserted into row "row1" column "cf:a", and so on.
    Run the scan command to traverse the entire table:

    hbase(main):006:0> scan 'test'
    ROW  COLUMN+CELL                                                                   
    row1   column=cf:a, timestamp=1530276759697, value=value1                         
    row2   column=cf:b, timestamp=1530276777806, value=value2                         
    row3   column=cf:c, timestamp=1530276792839, value=value3                         
    3 row(s) in 0.2110 seconds

    Run the get command to get the value of the specified row in the table:

    hbase(main):007:0> get 'test', 'row1'
    COLUMN  CELL                                                                       
    cf:a       timestamp=1530276759697, value=value                                   
    1 row(s) in 0.0790 seconds

    Run the drop command to delete a table, which should be disabled first before deletion by running the disable command:

    hbase(main):010:0> disable 'test'
    hbase(main):011:0> drop 'test'

    Finally, run the quit command to close HBase Shell.

    For more HBase Shell commands, please see the official documentation.

    3. Using HBase with APIs

    Download and install Maven first and then configure its environment variables. If you are using IDE, please configure Maven-related items in your IDE.

    Creating Maven project

    Enter the directory of the Maven project, such as D://mavenWorkplace, and create the project by running the following commands:

    mvn      archetype:generate      -DgroupId=$yourgroupID       -DartifactId=$yourartifactID 

    Here, $yourgroupID is your package name, $yourartifactID is your project name, and maven-archetype-quickstart indicates to create a Maven Java project. Some files need to be downloaded during the project creation, so please keep the network connected.

    After successfully creating the project, you will see a folder named $yourartifactID in the D://mavenWorkplace directory. The files included in the folder have the following structure:

      ---pom.xml    Core configuration, under the project root directory
          ---java      Java source code directory
            ---resources   Java configuration file directory
         ---java      Test source code directory
         ---resources   Test configuration directory

    Among the files above, pay extra attention to the pom.xml file and the Java folder under the main directory. The pom.xml file is primarily used to create dependencies and package configurations; the Java folder is used to store your source code.

    Adding Hadoop dependencies and sample code

    First, add the Maven dependencies to the pom.xml file:


    Then, add the packaging and compiling plugins to the pom.xml file:


    Before adding the sample code, you need to get the ZooKeeper address of the HBase cluster. Log in to any master or core node in EMR, go to the /usr/local/service/hbase/conf directory, and view the hbase.zookeeper.quorum configuration in the hbase-site.xml file for ZooKeeper's IP address $quorum and the hbase.zookeeper.property.clientPort configuration for the port number $clientPort.

    Then, add the sample code by creating a Java Class named PutExample.java in the main>java folder and adding the following code to it:

    import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
    import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.*;
    import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.*;
    import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes;
    import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.io.compress.Compression.Algorithm;
    import java.io.IOException;
    * Created by tencent on 2018/6/30.
    public class PutExample {
       public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
           Configuration conf = HBaseConfiguration.create();
           conf.set("zookeeper.znode.parent", "$znodePath");
            Connection connection = ConnectionFactory.createConnection(conf);
           Admin admin = connection.getAdmin();
            HTableDescriptor table = new HTableDescriptor(TableName.valueOf("test1"));
           table.addFamily(new HColumnDescriptor("cf").setCompressionType(Algorithm.NONE));
            System.out.print("Creating table. ");
           if (admin.tableExists(table.getTableName())) {
            Table table1 = connection.getTable(TableName.valueOf("test1"));
           Put put1 = new Put(Bytes.toBytes("row1"));
           put1.addColumn(Bytes.toBytes("cf"), Bytes.toBytes("a"),
           Put put2 = new Put(Bytes.toBytes("row2"));
           put2.addColumn(Bytes.toBytes("cf"), Bytes.toBytes("b"),
           Put put3 = new Put(Bytes.toBytes("row3"));
           put3.addColumn(Bytes.toBytes("cf"), Bytes.toBytes("c"),
            System.out.println(" Done.");

    Compiling code and packaging it for upload

    Use the local command prompt to enter the project directory and run the following command to compile and package the project:

    mvn package

    "Build success" indicates that package is successfully created. You can see the generated .jar package in the target folder under the project directory.

    Upload the package file to the EMR cluster with the scp or sftp tool. Be sure to include the dependencies in the .jar package to be uploaded. Run the following command in local command line mode:

    scp $localfile root@public IP address:$remotefolder

    Here, $localfile is the path and the name of your local file; root is the CVM instance username. You can look up the public IP address in the node information in the EMR or CVM console. $remotefolder is the path where you want to store the file in the CVM instance. After the upload is completed, you can check whether the file is in the corresponding folder on the EMR command line.

    4. Running Demo

    Log in to a master node of the EMR cluster and switch to the Hadoop user. Run the following command to run the demo:

    [hadoop@10 hadoop]$ java –jar $package.jar

    If the console outputs "Done", all operations are completed. You can switch to HBase Shell and run the list command to see whether the HBase table is successfully created with the API, and if yes, you can run the scan command to see the detailed content of the table.

    [hadoop@10hbase]$ bin/hbase shell
    hbase(main):002:0> list 'test1'
    1 row(s) in 0.0030 seconds
    => ["test1"]
    hbase(main):006:0> scan 'test1'
    ROW  COLUMN+CELL                                                                                 
    row1   column=cf:a, timestamp=1530276759697, value=value1                                       
    row2   column=cf:b, timestamp=1530276777806, value=value2                                       
    row3   column=cf:c, timestamp=1530276792839, value=value3                                       
    3 row(s) in 0.2110 seconds

    For more information on API usage, please see the official documentation.

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