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Basic Hive Operations

Last updated: 2021-01-22 16:17:15

    Hive is a data warehouse architecture built on the Hadoop file system (HDFS). It provides many features for data warehouse management, including data ETL (extraction, transformation, and loading), data storage management, and query and analysis for large data sets. In addition, it also defines the SQL-like language Hive-SQL, which allows users to perform operations similar to those in SQL. Hive-SQL maps structured data files to a single database table and provides simple SQL query capabilities. It also enables developers to easily use Mapper and Reducer operations to convert SQL statements into MapReduce jobs. This is a powerful support for the MapReduce framework, as the learning cost is low, and MapReduce statistics can be quickly collected with ease through SQL-like statements, eliminating the need to develop dedicated MapReduce applications. All these advantages make Hive very suitable for statistical analysis of data warehouses.

    Hive uses Hadoop's HDFS as its file storage system, making it easy to expand the storage capacity and increase the computing power. It can achieve the same horizontal stability as that of Hadoop, so that a cluster of thousands of servers can be built conveniently. In general, Hive is designed for mining massive amounts of data, but its real-time performance is relatively poor.

    Hive's internal and external tables:

    • Internal table: an internal table actually maps a file in HDFS to a table, and the data warehouse of Hive generates the corresponding directory for it. The default warehouse path in EMR is usr/hive/warehouse/$tablename. This path is in HDFS, where $tablename is the name of the table you created. Simply load the files matching the table definition into this directory, and they can be queried with Hive-SQL.
    • External table: an external table in Hive is very similar to a common table, except that the data is stored somewhere else but not in the directories of the table. The advantage of this mechanism is that when you delete the external table, the data it points to will not be deleted; instead, only the metadata corresponding to it will be deleted. By contrast, if you delete an internal table, all the data in it, including the metadata, will be deleted.

    This document demonstrates how to create tables in an EMR cluster and query them through Hive.

    1. Development Preparations

    • You need to create a bucket in COS for this job. For more information, please see Creating Buckets.
    • Confirm that you have activated Tencent Cloud and created an EMR cluster. When creating the EMR cluster, select the Hive component on the software configuration page and "Enable COS" on the basic configuration page and enter your own SecretId and SecretKey below, which can be viewed on the API Key Management page. If there is no key yet, click Create Key to create one.
    • Hive and its dependencies are installed in the EMR cluster directory /usr/local/service/.

    2. Data Preparations

    Log in to any node (preferably a master one) in the EMR cluster first. For more information on how to log in to EMR, please see Logging in to Linux Instance Using Standard Login Method. You can choose to log in with WebShell. Click "Log in" on the right of the desired CVM instance to enter the login page. The default username is root, and the password is the one you set when creating the EMR cluster. Once the correct information is entered, you can enter the command line interface.

    Run the following command on the EMR command line interface to switch to the Hadoop user, then go to the Hive folder:

    [root@172 ~]# su hadoop
    [hadoop@172 ~]# cd /usr/local/service/hive

    Create a bash script file named gen_data.sh and add the following code to it:

    MAXROW=1000000 # Specify the number of data rows to be generated
    for((i = 0; i < $MAXROW; i++))
        echo $RANDOM, \"$RANDOM\"

    And run it as follows:

    [hadoop@172 hive]$ chmod +x script name
    [hadoop@172 hive]$ ./gen_data.sh > hive_test.data

    This script file will generate 1,000,000 random number pairs and save them to the hive_test.data file.

    • Run the following command to upload the generated test data to HDFS first. Here, $hdfspath is the path of your file on HDFS.
      [hadoop@172 hive]$ hdfs dfs -put ./hive_test.data /$hdfspath
    • You can also use the data stored in COS. First, upload the data to COS. If the data is in the local file system, use the COS console. If it is in your EMR cluster, run the following command. Here, $bucketname is the name of the COS bucket you created.
      [hadoop@172 hive]$ hdfs dfs -put ./hive_test.data cosn://$bucketname/

    3. Basic Hive Operations

    Connecting to Hive

    Log in to a master node of the EMR cluster, switch to the Hadoop user, go to the Hive directory, and connect to Hive:

    [hadoop@172 hive]$ su hadoop
    [hadoop@172 hive]$ cd /usr/local/service/hive/bin
    [hadoop@172 bin]$ hive

    You can use the -h parameter to get basic information on Hive commands. You can also use the Beeline mode to connect to a database. To do so, you also need to log in to a master node in EMR, switch to the Hadoop user, and go to the Hive directory. In the conf/hive-site.xml configuration file, get the connection port $port and host address $host of Hive server 2:


    In the bin directory, run the following statement to connect to Hive:

    [hadoop@172 hive]$ cd bin
    [hadoop@172 bin]$ ./beeline -u "jdbc:hive2:// $host: $port " -n hadoop -p hadoop

    Creating Hive table

    You run the same Hive-SQL statements in Hive mode and the Beeline mode. The following example shows how to run Hive-SQL statements in Hive mode. Run the following command in Hive mode to view the database:

    hive> show databases;
    Time taken: 0.26 seconds, Fetched: 1 row(s)

    Run the create command to create a database:

    hive> create database test;                  # Create a database named test
    Time taken: 0.176 seconds

    Run the use command to go to the test database you just created:

    hive> use test; 
    Time taken: 0.176 seconds

    Run the create command to create an internal table named hive_test in the test database:

    hive> create table hive_test (a int, b string)
    # Create a data table named hive_test and specify the column separator as ','
    Time taken: 0.204 seconds

    There is only one command. If you do not enter the semicolon ";", Hive-SQL can put one command in multiple lines for input. Finally, you can run the following command to see whether the table has been created successfully:

    hive> show tables;
    Time taken: 0.176 seconds, Fetched: 1 row(s)

    Importing data into table

    For data stored in HDFS, run the following command to import it into the table:

    hive> load data inpath "/$hdfspath/hive_test.data" into table hive_test;

    Here, $hdfspath is the path of your file in HDFS. After the import is completed, the source data file in the import path in HDFS will be deleted.

    For data stored in COS, run the following command to import it into the table:

    hive> load data inpath "cosn://$bucketname/hive_test.data" into table hive_test;

    Here, $bucketname is your bucket name plus the path of the data in the bucket.

    Also, after the import is completed, the source data file in the import path in COS will be deleted. You can also import data stored locally in the EMR cluster into Hive by running the following command:

    hive>load data local inpath "/$localpath/hive_test.data" into table hive_test;

    Here, $localpath is the path of the data locally stored in the EMR cluster. After the import is completed, the source data will be deleted.

    Running query

    Run the select command to perform a query and count the number of data rows in a table:

    hive> select count(*) from hive_test;
    Query ID = hadoop_20170316142922_967b5f0e-1f89-4464-bfa3-b6ed53273fc2
    Total jobs = 1
    Launching Job 1 out of 1
    Number of reduce tasks determined at compile time: 1
    In order to change the average load for a reducer (in bytes):
    set hive.exec.reducers.bytes.per.reducer=
    In order to limit the maximum number of reducers:
    set hive.exec.reducers.max=
    In order to set a constant number of reducers:
    set mapreduce.job.reduces=
    Starting Job = job_1489458311206_9869, Tracking URL =
    Kill Command = /usr/local/service/hadoop/bin/hadoop job -kill job_1489458311206_9869
    Hadoop job information for Stage-1: number of mappers: 1; number of reducers: 1
    2017-03-16 14:29:29,023 Stage-1 map = 0%, reduce = 0%
    2017-03-16 14:29:34,208 Stage-1 map = 100%, reduce = 0%, Cumulative CPU 3.87 sec
    2017-03-16 14:29:40,404 Stage-1 map = 100%, reduce = 100%, Cumulative CPU 5.79 sec
    MapReduce Total cumulative CPU time: 5 seconds 790 msec
    Ended Job = job_1489458311206_9869
    MapReduce Jobs Launched:
    Stage-Stage-1: Map: 1 Reduce: 1 Cumulative CPU: 5.79 sec
    HDFS Read: 40974623 HDFS Write: 107 SUCCESS
    Total MapReduce CPU Time Spent: 5 seconds 790 msec
    Time taken: 18.504 seconds, Fetched: 1 row(s)

    The final output is 1000000.
    Run the select command to query the first 10 elements in the table:

    hive> select * from hive_test limit 10;
    30847    "31583"
    14887    "32053"
    19741    "16590"
    8104    "20321"
    29030    "32724"
    27274    "5231"
    10028    "22594"
    924    "32569"
    10603    "27927"
    4018    "30518"
    Time taken: 2.133 seconds, Fetched: 10 row(s)

    Deleting Hive table

    Run the drop command to delete a Hive table:

    hive> drop table hive_test;
    Moved: 'hdfs://HDFS/usr/hive/warehouse/hive_test' to trash at: hdfs://HDFS/user/hadoop/.Trash/Current
    Time taken: 2.327 seconds

    For more information on Hive operations, please see the official documentation.    

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